Today I’m happy to announce our plans to open a new AWS Region in Switzerland in the second half of 2022. When the AWS Europe (Zurich) Region is launched, developers, start-ups, and enterprises, as well as government, education, and non-profit organizations will be able to run their applications and serve end users across the region from data centers located in Switzerland.
在亚马逊的规模上运行业务，我们经常必须解决任何其他公司面临的问题之前。缺点是，没有“如何”指导我们 - 很多是未知的。然而，优势在于，当我们解决新问题时，它有机会重塑我们的服务并为客户创造新的福利。Indeed, we have created some of our most innovative and successful ideas when we have entered unchartered territory.
When you’re a customer-centric company, you often find yourself in the great unknown because customers will always want more and better. You will need to invent on their behalf. A great example of this approach to innovation and problem solving is the creation of the AWS Nitro System, the underlying platform for our EC2 instances.
After years of optimizing traditional virtualization systems to the limit, we knew we had to make a dramatic change in the architecture if we were going to continue to increase performance and security for our customers. This realization forced us to rethink everything and became the spark for our creating the Nitro System, the first infrastructure platform to offload virtualization functions to dedicated hardware and software. Now, with the Nitro System, we can offer the best price performance in the cloud, the most secure environment, and a faster pace of innovation.
I have always been very fortunate to meet our AWS customers where they have most impact, at their customers. Many of these AWS customers are solving really hard human problems, in ways that is extremely inspiring for any builder, like me. That became the inspiration for the Now Go Build series that chronicles my conversations with these innovators and their customers.
In the first season, we had a wonderful diverse group of young businesses showing their impact on the world. From providing identity to smallholder farms in Indonesia to healthcare in Brazil and conservation in South Africa.
The second season that we are launching today will again have four wonderful stories. In the coming weeks I will go into more detail, but these are the first three:
A few days ago I was fortunate to pick up a copy of a book that had a major impact on my early career as kernel engineer;
The Design and Implementation of the 4.3 BSD UNIX Operating System by Samuel J. Leffler, Marshall Kirk McKusick, Michael J. Karels and John S. Quarterman.
It was the first authoritative description of Berkeley UNIX, its design and implementation. The book covers the internal structure of the 4.3 BSD systems and the concepts, data structures and algorithms used in implementing the system facilities. But most importantly it was written by practitioners and builders and as such gave insights that academic text book would never give you.
In those days I was doing an internship at NIKHEF who were still using a collection of PDP 11s and one of my tasks was to get BSD2.9 to run on them. Lots of late nights and head scratching, but got it done eventually. I did learn how to boot from tape, over and over again (Zen!!). When I returned to school, they were about to decommission a PDP 11. I convinced them to put it in a old (big) cleaning closet, upgrade the power to the room, and I went right back to building out my BSD kernel expertise. I started late at Computer Science (28) but worked hard to catch up by getting my hands dirty.
When I posted on twitter I found of the book, many of our peers came up with a list of other books I had also read from that era.
One of the most rewarding parts of my job is getting to watch different industries implement new technologies that improve and transform business operations. Manufacturing, in particular, has always captivated my attention in this respect. When I think about how Amazon’s globally connected distribution network has changed in the last decade alone, it’s incredible. From the Internet of Things (IoT) to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and task automation to predictive maintenance technology, the advancements in this space are creating a world of new opportunity.
But this is complicated by that fact that many manufacturers have been around for decades or longer. Some of their equipment was designed before the internet even existed. If replacing this equipment isn’t an option, how do these manufacturers begin their journey to modern manufacturing? The choice of what to embrace and where to start can be daunting.
Ultimately, the reason for adopting any new technology in manufacturing is usually to achieve one or more of the following objectives: produce more, increase safety, or increase quality—and all at a lower cost. The good news is that the most important thing a manufacturer needs to accomplish with any of these objectives is something they already have. It’s something they’ve had since the moment they opened their doors, whether that was yesterday or 100 years ago: data.
全球医疗保健大流行已经像欧洲的许多人都知道。在此期间，许多组织一直在考虑其在Covid-19危机中的作用，以及他们如何最好地服务于他们的社区。我可以告诉您在亚马逊Web服务（AWS）中对我们没有什么不同。我们专注于我们可以在哪里做出最大的区别，帮助我们全部生活和工作的全球社区。这就是今天我们宣布T 他 Aws欧洲（米兰）地区现在是开放的。 strong> AWS（米兰）地区的开放表明我们对意大利人民的持续承诺和我们认为在该国的长期潜力。 p>
La maggior parte di noi, in Europa, non aveva mai conosciuto prima una pandemia globale come quella in corso. Durante questo periodo, molte organizzazioni stanno riflettendo sul proprio ruolo nella crisi COVID-19 e su quale può essere il modo migliore per supportare la propria comunità. Posso dirvi che per noi di Amazon Web Services (AWS) non è stato diverso. Ci siamo concentrati su come e dove avremmo potuto fare la differenza più grande aiutando le comunità globali in cui viviamo e lavoriamo. Con questo obiettivo in mente, oggi annunciamo l'apertura della Regione AWS Europe (Milano). Il lancio della Regione AWS in Italia conferma il nostro costante impegno per gli italiani e rafforza ulteriormente il nostro sostegno al grande potenziale del paese.
As COVID-19 has disrupted life as we know it, I have been inspired by the stories of organizations around the world using AWS in very important ways to help combat the virus and its impact. Whether it is supporting the medical relief effort, advancing scientific research, spinning up remote learning programs, or standing-up remote working platforms, we have seen how providing access to scalable, dependable, and highly secure computing power is vital to keep organizations moving forward. This is why, today, we are announcing the AWS Africa (Cape Town) Region is now open.
于3月16日，在PM 9:26，我收到了我朋友DJ的紧急电子邮件帕特尔，前白宫首席数据科学家，忠诚的健康技术负责人，赫瓦德肯尼迪学校的百家大学中心高级研究员，以及景观伙伴的顾问。除非你对某事相当漂亮，否则你不会得到那么多标题。对于DJ而言，“某些东西”是数学和计算机科学。 p>
dj从加州危机指挥中心写信给我。他解释说，他正在与全国各地的州长合作，以模仿Covid-19对情景规划的潜在影响。他想帮助他们回答关键问题，比如“我们需要多少医院床？”“如果我们暂时关闭人们聚集的地方，我们可以减少传播吗？”并“我们应该签发地下秩序，并达到多长时间？”虽然没有人能够预测未来，但与他们所知道的所有因素建模病毒，他们知道 em>是他们在帮助领导人做出明智的决定的最佳射击，这会影响数十万人的生活。 p>
Back when Jeff Bezos filled orders in his garage and drove packages to the post office himself, crunching the numbers on costs, tracking inventory, and forecasting future demand was relatively simple. Fast-forward 25 years, Amazon's retail business has more than 175 fulfillment centers (FC) worldwide with over 250,000 full-time associates shipping millions of items per day.
Amazon's worldwide financial operations team has the incredible task of tracking all of that data (think petabytes). At Amazon's scale, a miscalculated metric, like cost per unit, or delayed data can have a huge impact (think millions of dollars). The team is constantly looking for ways to get more accurate data, faster.
That's why, in 2019, they had an idea: Build a data lake that can support one of the largest logistics networks on the planet. It would later become known internally as the Galaxy data lake. The Galaxy data lake was built in 2019 and now all the various teams are working on moving their data into it.
A data lake is a centralized secure repository that allows you to store, govern, discover, and share all of your structured and unstructured data at any scale. Data lakes don't require a pre-defined schema, so you can process raw data without having to know what insights you might want to explore in the future. The following figure shows the key components of a data lake.
Have you ever received a call from your bank because they suspected fraudulent activity? Most banks can automatically identify when spending patterns or locations have deviated from the norm and then act immediately. Many times, this happens before victims even noticed that something was off. As a result, the impact of identity theft on a person's bank account and life can be managed before it's even an issue.
Having a deep understanding of the relationships in your data is powerful like that.
Consider the relationships between diseases and gene interactions. By understanding these connections, you can search for patterns within protein pathways to find other genes that may be associated with a disease. This kind of information could help advance disease research.
The deeper the understanding of the relationships, the more powerful the insights. With enough relationship data points, you can even make predictions about the future (like with a recommendation engine). But as more data is connected, and the size and complexity of the connected data increases, the relationships become more complicated to store and query.
在AWS RE：发明2019期间，我们宣布了许多高性能计算（hpc）创新，包括 Amazon EC2 M6G，C6G和R6G实例 a>由基于下一代ARM的AWS GravitOn2处理器提供动力。我们最近宣布新的AMD功耗，计算优化的EC2实例在作品中。 p>
今天，我很高兴分享一些关于我们的HPC解决方案的令人兴奋的消息。11月18日，AWS赢得了六个 HPCWire读者”和编辑选择奖，SC19的高性能计算，网络，存储和分析国际会议。 p>
There are places so remote, so harsh that humans can't safely explore them (for example, hundreds of miles below the earth, areas that experience extreme temperatures, or on other planets). These places might have important data that could help us better understand earth and its history, as well as life on other planets. But they usually have little to no internet connection, making the challenge of exploring environments inhospitable for humans seem even more impossible.
How do we push the boundaries of what's possible?
The answer to this question is actually on your phone, your smartwatch, and billions of other places on earth—it's the Internet of Things (IoT). Connected devices allow us to extend our senses to remote locations, such as a robot carrying out work on Mars or monitoring remote oil wells.
This is the exciting future for IoT, and it's closer than you think. Already, IoT is delivering deep and precise insights to improve virtually every aspect of our lives. Here's a few examples:
Because these IoT devices are powered by microprocessors or microcontrollers that have limited processing power and memory, they often rely heavily on AWS and the cloud for processing, analytics, storage, and machine learning. But as the number of IoT devices and use cases grow, people are finding that managing these connected devices presents new challenges. Sometimes an internet connection is weak or not available at all, as is often the case in remote locations. For some applications, a trip to the cloud and back isn't possible because of latency requirements (for example, an autonomous car interpreting its environment in real time).
There's also the cost to send data to the cloud to consider. Some sensors, like those in factories, are collecting an incredible amount of data and sending it all to the cloud could get expensive. These barriers are driving some people to the edge—literally.
In this post, I want to talk about edge computing, the power to have compute resources and decision-making capabilities in disparate locations, often with intermittent or no connectivity to the cloud. In other words, process the data closer to where it's created.
创新一直是亚马逊DNA的一部分，但大约20年前，我们经历了一个激进的转变为制作我们的迭代过程 - “发明，启动，重新发明，重新启动，重新开始，冲洗，再次重复，再次重复“ - 即使更快。我们所做的更改影响了我们如何构建应用程序以及我们如何组织我们的公司。 p>
我们曾经常常的巨型，单整体的“书店”应用程序和巨型数据库权力 amazon.com 限制我们的速度和敏捷性。每当我们想要为客户添加新功能或产品，如视频流，我们必须编辑和重写我们为我们的第一个产品专为我们的书店设计的应用程序的大量代码。这是一个需要复杂协调的长，笨重的过程，它限制了我们快速和规模创新的能力。 p>
I'm happy to announce today that the new AWS Middle East (Bahrain) Region is now open! This is our first AWS Region in the Middle East and I'm excited by the opportunities the availability of hyper scale infrastructure will bring to organizations of all sizes. Starting today, developers, startups, and enterprises, as well as government, education, and non-profit organizations can run their applications and serve end users across the region from data centers located in the Middle East.
With this launch, our infrastructure now spans 69 Availability Zones across 22 geographic regions around the world. We have also announced plans for nine more Availability Zones in three more AWS Regions in Indonesia, Italy, and South Africa coming online in the next few years. The new AWS Middle East (Bahrain) Region offers three Availability Zones (AZs) at launch. AZs refer to data centers in separate distinct locations within a single Region that are engineered to be operationally independent of other AZs, with independent power, cooling, physical security, and are connected via a low latency network. AWS customers focused on running highly available applications can architect their applications to run in multiple AZs to achieve even higher fault-tolerance.
A few months ago, I wrote the post "Amazon Aurora ascendant: How we designed acloud-native relational database," and now I'm excited to share some news about the people behind the service. This week, the developers of Amazon Aurora have won the 2019 Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) Special Interest Group on Management of Data (SIGMOD) Systems Award. The award recognizes "an individual or set of individuals for the development of a software or hardware system whose technical contributions have had significant impact on the theory or practice of large-scale data management systems."
Last year, I spent some time in Jakarta visiting HARA, an AWS customer. They've created a way to connect small farms in developing nations to banks and distributers of goods, like seeds, fertilizer, and tools. Traditionally, rural farms have been ignored by the financial world, because they don't normally have the information required to open an account or apply for credit. With HARA, this hard-to-obtain data on small farms is collected and authenticated, giving these farmers access to resources they've never had before.
A major component to the system that HARA created is blockchain. This is a technology used to build applications where multiple parties can interact through a peer-to-peer-network and record immutable transactions with no central trusted authority. HARA has had to develop additional technologies to make their application work on Ethereum, a popular, open source, blockchain framework.
Today, I am happy to introduce the new AWS Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region. AWS customers can now use this Region to serve their end users in Hong Kong SAR at a lower latency, and to comply with any data locality requirements.
The AWS Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region is the eighth active AWS Region in Asia Pacific and mainland China along with Beijing, Mumbai, Ningxia, Seoul, Singapore, Sydney, and Tokyo. With this launch, AWS now spans 64 Availability Zones within 21 geographic regions around the world, and has announced plans for 12 more Availability Zones and four more AWS Regions in Bahrain, Cape Town, Jakarta, and Milan.